Feb 132015

by Elizabeth Franklin Lewis, University of Mary Washington, February, 2015

This site is conceived as a digital exhibition, where you can observe a number of digital artifacts that tell the story of women’s social and political activity through charity. All of these items are organized in the menu on the right by century, and include both images, texts, two databases, and a link to a documentary in Spanish. All of the texts are in Spanish and are digital facsimiles of the original.

Linked to each exhibition item are student-authored general interest essays in English to place these items in their historical and cultural context. These essays are also grouped by time period in the drop down menus below our site’s header. Each grouping is introduced by an essay. If you don’t know much about Spain, the women’s movement in Spain, or women’s charity in Spain, these introductory essays would be a good way to approach the exhibit.

The moving slideshow of our exhibit at the top of the right sidebar, link to the items also organized below by century.

Just as with a physical museum exhibit, the viewer has a number of selections of how he or she would like to navigate our digital space, by clicking on one of the images of the slideshow, by going directly to each item in the right side bar, or by starting with our historical introduction provided in the drop down menus. Regardless where you start your visit, we have tried to provide hyperlinks that can help you move about in multiple ways, according to your interests.

Our exhibition items are also meant for use by students and researchers by providing access to full-text digital copies of all of our print items. Also included in this exhibition are two databases that catalog the contents of two periodicals–La Voz de la Caridad and Medina–associated with women’s charity. The information collected on the first journal, Voz de la Caridad, is a complete representation of all 14 years of its publication. The information collected from Medina is incomplete, and therefore is only a representative sample of its contents. Both databases are searchable by title,  author,  publication date, genre, and tags (or key words). This information could be used to locate the publication information about a particular author or title, or it could be used to analyze the contents themselves–the sorts of topics, genres, and contributors that were published. The printed material itself is not digitized here, which unfortunately is only available in print form in a few libraries, mostly in Spain.

If you are interested in how we constructed this site, read below the essays on the technical details and on the digital obstacles we faced.


 Posted by on February 13, 2015
Feb 022015

By Elizabeth Franklin Lewis, University of Mary Washington, January, 2015.

We have seen how Concepcion Arenal dominated  nineteenth-century women’s charity, and how in her Voz de la Caridad it became an issue of national and international social importance to women and to men. Arenal’s influence continued well into the twentieth century, when charity and social action  took on special political significance for women, both progressive and conservative.

Some feminist leaders during Spain’s Second Republic criticized women’s charity of previous generations. For Margarita Nelken, although their charitable activities demonstrated women’s leadership potential, it did not represent the new society that she and other socialists envisioned. In the chapter “El socialismo y la negación del voto” (Socialism and the Denial of the Vote) from her 1931 La mujer ante las cortes constituyentes (Woman and the Constituent Assembly), she speaks to the idea that women’s charitable work prove them fit them for civic leadership:

Existe un campo de actividad, cuyo privilegio no ha sido nunca regateado a la mujer y que es, por consiguiente, la mejor piedra de toque para la capacidad del feminismo: la beneficencia. Hay muchas probabilidades que una mujer que ha sabido organizar y administrar una gran obra benéfica, sepa también intervenir por lo menos en asuntos municipales.

There exists an area of activity, which has always been relegated to women, and is, therefore,the best proof of the capacity of feminism: beneficence. It is likely that a woman who has been able to organize and administrate a large project of charity would also be able to participate in civic matters. (27)

Although women’s charitable work might show a “capacity for feminism” as she calls it, it also comes with too many strings attached, namely that faith-based charity chooses its recipients based on moral or religious values of the past. Nelken sees charity as a outdated system for addressing social ills, and at odds with the future of a socialist Spain. In turn, women’s charitable social work does not convince Nelken that women in Spain are ready for universal suffrage:

Mas al concederse hoy una libertad tan decisiva, tan “determinante” como el voto femenino, no puede tampoco concederse sobre la base de una realidad futura, sino de una realidad ya probada y existente”

Rather by conceding today such a decisive freedom, so “determining” as is giving women the vote, it cannot be conceded on the basis of some future reality, but rather on a reality that is already proven and existent (29-30).

Other women leaders of her generation, while agreeing with Nelken about the possible dangers of women’s suffrage in Second Republic Spain, also emulated previous generations of women’s work in society.  Our 20th century exhibit begins with Victoria Kent who, like Concepción Arenal in the previous century, and the Asociación  de Señoras during the late Enlightenment, also worked for reform of women’s prisons and the rights of women prisoners and their children housed in them.  The image of Kent’s social and political activism appeared frequently in magazines of the period, which portrayed her as a model for the Spanish modern woman. Other women also spoke out for social action through popular periodical publications. For example, interest in children’s health and education, a topic also traceable to the eighteenth century,  can be observed in articles published in the progressive women’s magazine Mundo femenino.  In the debate over women’s suffrage, these women, and the men who supported them, saw women’s active social role during Spain’s progressive Second Republic tied to their political role.

On the conservative side, during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and the early years of the Franco dictatorship that followed, women’s active participation in solving social ills and alleviating suffering was promoted in the numerous publications by the fascist Sección Femenina de la Falange (Women’s Section of the Falange)  The images found in the women’s magazine Y  and the representative contents cataloged in a database of 1941-1945 issues of Medina–both publications the Sección Femenina–encouraged women’s charitable work to improve children’s health and education, to support the war effort, and later to care for wounded Nationalist soldiers. All of the actions of the Sección Femenina served to further Franco’s reactionary political agenda, even while it asserted an active role for women in it, albeit in within the limits of accepted gender norms. For the women of the Falange, their role was to support male politics with work deemed appropriate to their sex, and not to challenge male authority–something reminiscent of the eighteenth-century controversies that led to the creation of the Junta de Damas.

Two recent productions linked at the end of our twentieth century exhibit–a 2012 exhibition in Madrid tracing 100 years of women´s history, and a 2006 documentary film about the Sección Femenina–give an overview of both women´s progressive politics and women´s part in the early years of the Spanish fascism.


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 Posted by on February 2, 2015
Apr 202014

by Elizabeth Lewis, University of Mary Washington, February 2015.

This exhibit is built on a WordPress content management platform, using the theme “Suffusion”, a rather flexible theme that is easily customizable.  On the site we  exhibit images,  searchable pdf texts, searchable databases, and links to related content on other websites. We pair these items with select Dublin Core metadata and student-authored informational articles, using a combination of pages and posts to organize and display our materials.

While some digital materials we have collected from existing digital sources, others we have created ourselves. In the case of texts, they were scanned from a photocopy into pdf documents, uploaded to Google Docs, using Google Docs viewer to generate an embed link.

The databases record the contents of two journals that are not available digitally, nor are their contents cataloged. These databases were created directly in WordPress, using custom post-types and taxonomies. A front-end form was created for data collection, where students were able to key in information about individual authors, article titles, and publication, as well as choose from drop-down menus regarding genre and tags (keywords). These entries were saved as individual posts in WordPress, which were then accessible through another front-end page that displays  a query form based on the index of the associated custom posts. In many ways this was a trial and error process, and we learned as we went how to define better the parameters of the data collected, and how to maximize the functionality of potential queries.

The exhibit contains digital copies of the following:

  • seven images produced between 1798 and 1941: a drawing from Goya’s San Lucar sketch album (1798) and two engravings from Goya’s Desastres de la Guerra (1814); an engraving depicting a scene from the Franco-Prussian War by an unknown artist and published in the journal La Ilustración Española y Americana (1870); the cover of two women’s magazines of opposing views during the Spanish Civil War—the progressive Mundo Femenino  (1936) and the fascist Y:Revista para la Mujer (1938), as well as a photo collage printed in the fascist women’s magazine “Y” and one from the progressive magazine Crónica published during Spain’s Second Republic.
  • six texts produced between 1786 and 1936: Jovellanos “Discurso sobre si se debían o no admitir las señoras en la Sociedad Económica de Madrid” (1786); María Rosario Cepeda Elogio de la reyna” (1798); María Rosa Gálvez “Oda a la beneficencia” (1801); Concepción Arenal La beneficencia, filantropía y la caridad  (861) and “A la ambulancia Navarra de la Cruz Roja” (1871); and Rosaura Tameuse “El Comedor del Niño” (1936).
  • two databases: One database displays information about the complete contents of the monthly journal La Voz de la Caridad  (1870-1884) edited and published by social activist Concepción Arenal, with over 1300 entries in the database representing the titles and authors (when known), as well as associated key terms. The other database contains over 400 entries with information from selected issues of Medina, a weekly magazine for women published by the Franco supported Sección Femenina de la Falange (1941-1945)
  • links to an RTVE documentary (2006) about the Sección Femenina and to the catalog of a recent (2012) museum exhibit Cien años en femenino.

We utilize the functionality of pages and posts in WordPress to organize the site in the following ways:

Exhibit items are displayed on pages and organized by time period through custom menus that display at the right sidebar. A slide show above on the top right sidebar also displays a running display of the exhibition ítems.

Posts contain team-created content in the form of articles that place exhibit items in their historical context.  Posts are organized by associated categories organized by the top bar menu, with a general overview article appearing first, followed by articles associated with specific exhibit items.

Web Resources


 Posted by on April 20, 2014
Dec 122013

Article by Sarah Abbott, University of Mary Washington, December 2013

In May 2012, Dr. Lewis and four of her undergraduate research assistants, Sarah Abbott, Madeline Albrittain, Katie Lebling, and Lara Pugh, traveled to Madrid, Spain to look at microfilms at La Biblioteca Nacional de España. During our week-long trip, we had the pleasure of attending an exposition titled “100 años en feminino” or “100 years of women” at the “Conde-Duque” municipal center.

As we walked through the municipal center we were able to see the evolution of woman’s role in Spain throughout the 20th century. The months leading up to this trip consisted of us studying women’s role in Spain, during General Francisco Franco’s reign specifically, and this exposition brought all of our research to life.

The exhibit consisted of artifacts, posters, pictures, videos and many other resources that showed women’s role in Spain through the last century. It depicts women’s entrance into society throughout this century. From their entrance into the labor force, to their inclusion in public activities, to becoming prominent people politically and socially, the last century shows an evolution from the housewife to an active woman in society, which was brought to life in this exhibit.

As we walked into the exhibit we started at the beginning of the twentieth century with artifacts such as different cosmetics and make up mirrors. As we walked through this chronological portrait of women, it evolved from ads of house cleaners to pictures of divorce rallies and documents appointing women to political positions.

The part of the exhibit that stuck out the most from the general evolution of the woman from house wife to vocal social being was the section dedicated to the role of women during Francisco Franco’s dictatorship. This section was the most important part to us as we had been studying this time period for the whole semester leading up to this trip. What stood out the most was a wall that had a post titled “18 Puntos del servicio social de la sección feminina” which translates to “18 Points of Social Service of the Feminine Section”. This was Franco’s women’s group that promoted being the proper housewife and mother, which was a step back in the woman’s progression in the past thirty years or so. However, they did talk about the importance of social service, which was expected of the ideal woman during this time period. This directly relates to women in charity. Although they were not active politically, women during the dictatorship were out in society helping the less fortunate.

After the end of the dictatorship, this exhibit continues to portray women as politically and socially active in Spain. From pictures of rallies for women’s rights to fighting for liberty, to one of the most recent pieces being a picture of all the women in the government at this time, this exhibit truly shows how much women have done to become a vital part of Spanish society.

 Posted by on December 12, 2013
Dec 112013

“Paisajes de la Historia – La Sección Femenina”

Article by Emily Scheuer, University of Mary Washington, December 2013

            The short documentary about La Sección Femenina (The Women’s Section), produced by the documentary series “Paisajes de la Historia” (“Landscapes of History”) and shown on RTVE (a Spanish public radio and television service), centers around La Sección Femenina which was an institution of women founded in 1934 during the Falange fascist political movement in Spain. This documentary explains the history of La Sección Femenina beginning with the death of José Antonio Primo de Rivera, the leader and founder of the Falange political movement in Spain to the dissolution of the institution in 1977.

The documentary opens in the fall of 1939 with the Falangists carrying the casket of José Antonio in a 10-day funeral procession from Alicante to El Escorial close to Madrid. The documentary mixes commentary about the La Sección Femenina from contemporary scholars and participants in the organization with information about the life and contributions of Pilar Primo de Rivera, the sister of José Antonio Primo de Rivera and leader of La Sección Femenina.

La Sección Femenina became an official institution in 1937 where women were instructed on Francoist patriotic and social morals. Neither José Antonio nor the majority of the Falangists supported the idea of an “active” woman in politics, therefore, La Sección Femenina was designed for the woman to establish her “place” or “role” in society as being primarily in the household, and it was up to these women to teach future generations how to be exemplary mothers and housewives. La Sección Femenina also assumed roles of support and social service for Spanish soldiers and the civilian population during the Spanish civil war. Finally, the organization  emphasized the importance of musical folklore in its teachings to maintain unity among members and perform dances to show dedication to the country.

The documentary explains how Pilar Primo de Rivera encouraged women to act quietly and in the background, and also how according to the documentary, Pilar credited the Falangist political movement with making women cleaner, children healthier, homes tidier, and towns happier. She even denied women’s intellectual capability saying that women lacked creative talent and could do no more than interpret what men gave to them. The documentary focuses on this role of women as being good mothers or wives, submissive and sacrificial, not speaking out of turn and serving men. They were queens of the home and needed to conform to this role. Towards the end of the documentary, it explains that La Sección Femenina was necessary during its particular time period as it gave structure and rules for women during the Falangist political movement to follow, and it began to dissolve once women realized their rights and ability to have a voice and started to fight for them.


Capel Martínez, María Rosa. El sufragio femenino en la 2ª república española. Granada: Universidad de Granada, 1975. Print. Colección Monográfica Universidad de Granada. 40.

Capel Martínez, María Rosa. El trabajo y la educación de la mujer en España (1900-1930). Spain: Ministerio de Cultura, Dirección General de Juventud y Promoción Socio-Cultural, 1982. Print. Estudios sobre la mujer.

“La Sección Femenina.” Paisajes De La Historia. RTVE. La 2, 08 Oct. 2006. Rtve.es. Corporación De Radio Y Televisión Española, 7 Sept. 2012. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. <http://www.rtve.es/alacarta/videos/paisajes-de-la-historia/paisajes-historia—seccion-femenina/642193/>.

Ortola Noguera, Antonia. El Castillo de la Mota de Medina del Campo. Spain: Ministerio de Cultura, 1982. Print.

Primo de Rivera, Rocío. Los primo de Rivera: historia de una familia. Spain: La Esfera de los Libros, 2003. Print.

 Posted by on December 11, 2013
Dec 042013

by Elizabeth Franklin Lewis, University of Mary Washington, March 2013

In an engraving by Francisco Goya titled “La caridad de una muger” (The Charity of a Woman), part of his series “Desastres de la Guerra” (1810-1815), which depicted suffering of the Spanish people during the war with Napoleonic France, the artist presents us with the image of a charitable lady, but with an ambivalence that is typical of his style.  We see a group of suffering figures in the center of the scene, who have supposedly received “charity” in the form of food from a lady, almost hidden in the shadows in the background, whose servant (back to the viewer) is distributing the food.  Beside the lady we see a friar, almost imperceptible in the darkness, but observing with the lady that pitiful scene.  What does “The Charity of a Woman” mean?  This is the question that Goya presents us—something that encompasses all of the male anxieties of his time over women’s political desires and the modernizing impulses of a Spain that extended from the eighteenth century well into the twentieth.  As Goya suggests in his engraving, we see in this question some central themes—the resolution of social problems, the political position of women in Spain, feminine sensibility and sentimentalism, and the extremely complicated role of religion in Spanish society.  Although we may question the motives and interpretations of Goya in this picture, surely the artist perceived a connection between women and charity that women would recognize as important for themselves as well as for the modernization of Spain.

Eighteenth-century notions of charity in Spain were heavily influenced by its deep Catholic tradition, in which charity, or caritas, was held up as one of the tenets of religious faith.  Nonetheless, the topic of charity and its related subjects began to take on social and political significance in Spain, at the same time that it became more associated with virtue and sentiment and less with spiritual duty.   During this shift from a more religious-based notion of charity to the more secular and civic-minded of beneficence, women asserted themselves as important actors in the social and economic reforms that were the object of Enlightenment-style caridad.  Their very political actions and writings at the end of the Enlightenment period in Spain firmly claimed charity as a means of social action for women, which would continue to be a hallmark of women’s important role in Spanish society for a century, and exalted by both conservatives and liberals.

Our exhibit begins in 1786, when the Royal Economic Society of Madrid began debating the possible admission of women into their membership, supported by member Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos in his Discurso published in the Memorial Literario.  The polemic was very heated on both sides, as men and women argued over women’s supposed sentimental nature and their inherent charitableness–qualities exalted in Goya’s tender scene of the Duchess of Alba with her adopted daughter.  The controversy was solved when King Charles III created the first women’s civic organization in Spain, the Junta de Damas, an auxiliary group to the all-male Economic Society that immediately undertook several charitable projects fundamental to Spain’s economic and political stability. Member of the Junta, Maria Cepeda, spoke of the importance of the group’s projects in her Elogio dedicated to Queen Maria Luisa of Borbon; while author María Rosa Gálvez dedicated her “Oda a la Beneficencia” to another member of the Junta, her cousin the Countess of Castroterreño. .  These women lay the groundwork for a century and a half of women’s charitable work and writings about the social and political importance of women’s charity in Spanish society.



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 Posted by on December 4, 2013
Sep 112013

Article by Kaylee Wilsher
University of Mary Washington, October 2013

Throughout the course of creating the Women and Charity in Spain (Mujeres y Caridad) project, we have faced various obstacles related to the digitization and cataloguing of the material as well as the basic structuring of the website itself. One of the main advantages to hosting a project of this scale and complexity online is that all of the sources and insight we have gathered is freely and widely available to those who wish to learn more about the subject matter or anyone who is interested in the items we have catalogued in our extensive databases.

One of the first obstacles we had to face was creating searchable, online databases. Two separate groups of researchers traveled to Spain in order to collect information from two  periodicals: the nineteenth-century journal La Voz de la Caridad and the twentieth-century publication Medina, both of which have not been digitized and not widely available to the public. Throughout this extensive process a wide array of information was gathered, ranging from articles to product advertisements, and the imminent problem we were faced with became how to house all of the information in a way that would be useful both for our purposes as researchers and writers, and also for other visitors to our site who are looking to learn something about the resources we were able to study first hand. In order to accomplish this monumental task, technology specialists, Tim Owens and Martha Burtis, at UMW’s Division of Teaching and Learning Technologies rewrote part of the WordPress program in order to host three easily navigable databases that users are able to search based on certain tags, such as genre, author, or title.

Another challenge we encountered was how exactly to structure the metadata relating to our sources. Metadata refers to the data that describes a source, such as its title, creator, and date of creation, and there are several different methods of showcasing and organizing metadata for various types of resources. One of the methods that is used quite commonly today to classify metadata as Dublin Core, which has 15-18 elements that can be used to provide a detailed description of the item. Depending on how meticulously you wish to describe the item as well as how much information is available to you, Dublin Core can be incredibly useful when you want to provide a meticulously thorough summary definition of a rather broad source. However, we have debated how to use the Dublin Core elements to suit our purposes and have ultimately decided to pick and edit a few of the elements to describe our items. We are using Title, Creator, Date, and Description in the way designated by Dublin Core, but we are using Collection to describe what series the item might be in, and Source to describe the physical location where we found the item.

An additional hindrance we have faced is how to structure a website to house all of our information. The website is currently hosted on WordPress, because it has a very user friendly interface both from an administrative and outside user perspective. It contains customizable menus, which were very useful for organizing all of the articles by century and topic, as well as helpful widgets, which can display a calendar-style archive of the sites posts as well as a visual exhibit that rotates between each of the original sources that are embedded or housed on the website. At one point, a proposal was made to abandon ship and jump to Omeka in order to utilize its built-in Dublin Core tagging system for items in our collection, but upon testing it out, we found that it was not as user-friendly or easily customizable as WordPress.

A final obstacle for our project has been the issue of copyright. All of the images and texts that we display in our exhibit are in the public domain, and we have received additional permissions from the libraries and museums that hold them. We had to delay the unveiling of this site until 2015 so that the images from Y, Medina and Cronica were 70 years beyond their last publication date. One text we would like to display by Margarita Nelken won´t be in the public domain until 2038, seventy years after her death in 1968!

Although it is often discouraging to encounter obstacles such as these throughout the course of a project of this magnitude, it can also be seen as a challenge that will eventually help to strengthen the presentation of the research. By being a part of this research project and learning about the digital aspects involved, such as Dublin Core and content-management tools like WordPress and Omeka, I have become more comfortable with web-based programs and have actually come to enjoy metadata categorization.  As the website continues to expand and change, so will the structure upon which we have built our research project, and we will continue to benefit from the dynamic web technology and tools at our disposal.


Bibliography/Further Readings:

Brazell, Aaron. WordPress Bible. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2010. Print.

Cordell, Ryan. “New Technologies to Get Your Students Engaged.” The Chronicle of Higher Education (2011). n. pag. Web. 8 May 2011.

Morton, Amanda. “Digital Tools: Zotero and Omeka.” Journal of American History 98.3 (2011): 952–953. jah.oxfordjournals.org. Web. 5 Nov. 2013.

Weibel, Stuart. “The Dublin Core: A Simple Content Description Model for Electronic Resources.” Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 24.1: 9-11. Web. 31 Jan 2005.


 Posted by on September 11, 2013
Mar 032013

by Elizabeth Franklin Lewis, University of Mary Washington, March 2013

Just as in the late-Enlightenment period, in nineteenth-century Spain sentimental images of angelic feminine charity existed alongside real-world examples of women’s civic actions to improve Spanish society in the arenas of health, education, child-rearing, penal reform, and the establishment of the Red Cross in Spain. Much like in other European countries and the US, efforts to move these activities out of the realm of religion and into that of the law began to intensify during this time. While many women (and men) participated in many organizations and initiatives, none was as actively and visibly involved in every aspect of charity as was Concepción Arenal.  Her many publications, including her award-winning treatise La Beneficencia, la filantropia y la caridad” (1861) and her important bi-monthly journal La Voz de la Caridad (1871-1884) are testaments to her fervor to improve life for the underprivileged and disenfranchised.

Our nineteenth-century exhibit begins with Arenal’s first important publication on charity, La Beneficencia, la filantropia y la caridad(1861). The image of angelic feminine charity evident in a reproduced engraving of French women aiding victims of the Franco-Prussian War was a controversial topic that was much in the news of the day, something we see reflected in Arenal’s own writings in La Voz de la Caridad especially in her interest in the work of the Red Cross. A searchable database gives a glimpse into the depth and breadth of the articles published during its thirteen-year existence, and is an important research tool, cataloging this important text that has yet to be digitized or indexed.


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 Posted by on March 3, 2013
Mar 052012

Article by Carley McCready, University of Mary Washington, April 2011

Goyas’s series of etchings, Desastres de la guerra (Disasters of the War), begun in 1810, are snapshots of the horrors of the Peninsular War, waged by France upon its former ally, Spain. A total of 82 engravings, it was originally titled by Goya, Fatales consecuencias de la sangrienta guerra en España con Buonaparte, y otros caprichos enfáticos, or” The Fatal Consequences of Spain’s Bloody War with Bonaparte, and Other Emphatic Caprices.”  The themes presented in the Desastres, as it is commonly known, encompass the futility of the war, the brutality of the French soldier, and the effects of war that ravaged Goya’s country (Vallentin 263), as seen in Plate 27, “La caridad” Caridad Desastres de la guerra 27.







Plate 49, entitled Caridad de una mujer (Charity of a Woman, seen in the featured image here), depicts a common scene during the Peninsular war. The subject of this etching is the charity of a woman, located in the left foreground of the artwork, giving food to those dying of starvation on the streets of Spain. She is depicted in all white, yet her back is turned from the viewer. This etching is based on el año de hambre, the year of hunger, when famine struck Madrid from 1811 to 1812 and more than 20,000 citizens died on the streets.

While it is hard to be sure about what Goya was trying to say in his enigmatic  “La caridad de una muger,” it is definite that Goya’s social commentary of the Peninsular War is negative. In his series Desastres de la guerra, there is no doubt that he is “attacking the senselessness of the war itself, the futility of the carnage, [and] the crime committed against mankind’s primordial right, the right to live” (Vallentin 263). His ironic take on the subject, from the scenes he represented to the captions he wrote, allow the viewer to see that Goya viewed the war as tragically pointless.


“Gentes de color, gentes de placer y otras rarezas: Una aproximación a su estudio en la pintura europea y americana de los siglos XVII y XVIII.”  Cabildo Insular de Fuerteventura. Comisión de Cultura (Islas Canarias, España), n.d. Internet resource.

Goya, Francisco, Janis A. Tomlinson, and Serraller F. Calvo. Goya: Images of Women. Washington, D.C: National Gallery of Art, 2002. Print.

Museo del Prado, Desastres de la guerra, http://www.museodelprado.es/goya-en-el-prado/obras/lista/?tx_gbgonline_pi1%5Bgocollectionids%5D=27

Vallentin, Antonina. This I Saw: The Life and Times of Goya. New York: Random House, 1949. Print.

 Posted by on March 5, 2012